The Best Guide for Essential Elements and Adequate Diet

You may have heard the term of essential elements and wondered if they are carbohydrates, fat, protein and vitamins or something else. Well, they are something else. Essential elements are inorganic elements that are essential for normal vital processes of the body and they must be supplied by dietary sources. The important elements which are liable to deficiency in its supply are calcium, iron and iodine so let’s find out all the information you need to know about them and after that we will talk about how to make the perfect diet.

1. Calcium:
• Physiological role of calcium:
A. Maintain element of bone and teeth.
B. Normal clotting of blood.
C. Normal functions of motor nerves.
• Sources of Calcium:
Milk, cheese, egg yolk, fish, green vegetables and sesame.
• Clinical effects:
Deficiency of calcium leads to rickets, Tetany and osteomalacia.
• Recommended intake per day of calcium:
A. Pregnant women and lactating mothers: 1200 mg.
B. Adults: 800 mg.
• Factors affecting absorption of calcium:
A. Absorption is facilitated by gastric acidity, proteins and vitamin D.
B. Absorption is inhibited by phytic acid in cereals and bran and by oxalic acid in vegetables.

2. Iron:
About 70% of the total body iron is found in haemoglobin in healthy adults, 10% is found in tissues and enzyme and 20% as a storage iron in liver, spleen and bone marrow.
• Clinical effects:
Its deficiency lead to hypochromic microcytic anemia.
• Sources of iron:
A. Animal sources: organ meat as liver, heart and kidney, egg yolk and lean meat.
B. Plant sources: Nuts, molasses and green leafy vegetables.
• Recommended daily intake of iron:
A. Adult male: 10 mg.
B. adult female: 15 mg.
C. Pregnant woman: 30 mg.
• Factors enhancing iron absorption from the intestine:
1) Physiological requirements.
2) Quality of diet: more absorption with animal sources than plant sources.
3) Vitamin c facilitates absorption.
4) Gastric acidity increases absorption.
5) Phytic acid decreases absorption.
• Therapeutic uses of iron: iron is used in iron deficiency anemia.

3. Iodine:
The physiological role of iodine is that it is essential component of thyroid hormones which regulate metabolism.
• Sources of iodine:
A. Vegetable and fruits grown on iodine rich soil.
B. Fish.
C. Iodized salt.
• Clinical effects:
A. Iodine deficiency leads to goitre, cretinism, spontaneous abortion and still birth.
B. Excess iodine leads to either hypo-thyroidism or hyper-thyroidism.
• The Recommended iodine intake per day for adults is 150 UG. This amount should increase with physiological stress like puberty, pregnancy and lactation.
• Therapeutic uses of iodine: Goitre and cretinism.

4. Adequate diet:
It is a mixture of food stuffs properly selected and prepared to satisfy nutritional requirements. The food and Nutrition Broad of the National Research Council has given the dietary standards which are universally accepted and referred for planning or evaluating diets and represent the nutritional requirements for man.

The basic food groups include 3 groups:
1) Body Building foods:
A. Milk group: milk and milk products provide high biological value protein, calcium, phosphors and riboflavin.
B. Meat group: includes meat, eggs, beans and the group provides protein, phosphorus, iron and B complex.
2) Energy supplying foods like bread and cereals which supply carbohydrates, cellulose, iron and the B vitamins.
3) Vitality foods: Vegetables and fruits.
This is how to construct an adequate diet under different social, economic and health conditions.

Diet Modification in Renal Diseases

Patients with renal diseases lose the function of one of the most important organs in their bodies; the kidney. The kidney works as a filter for toxins; food contains toxins. That is why diet modification in renal diseases is extremely important; let’s find out how to make healthy meals for patients with kidney diseases.

1. Nephrotic syndrome:
This disorder covers a group of symptoms resulting from loss of glomerular barrier to protein sol large protein losses in urine that leads to:
1) Decrease albumin in blood.
2) Consequent edema.
3) Increase cholesterol in blood.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be high from 2500 to 3500 calories.
2) Protein intake should be high. The recommended intake is 1.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat is restricted.
4) Sodium intake should be moderate restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 3 gram.
5) Potassium is restricted.
6) Phosphors should be as usual.
7) The vitamins intake should be as usual.
8) Fluid intake should be high.

2. Glomerulonephritis:
Acute glomerulonephritis is characterized by inflammation of the capillary loop of the glomerulus. It is of sudden onset and manifested by:
1) Blood in urine.
2) Hypertension.
3) Mild loss of renal function.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be adequate.
2) Protein intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be 0.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat intake should be as usual.
4) Sodium intake should be as usual.
5) Potassium is restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 0.5 gram.
6) Phosphors should be as usual.
7) The vitamins intake should be as usual.
8) Fluid intake should be balanced between input and output.

3. Acute renal failure:
A sudden reduction in the ability of the kidney to excrete metabolic waste.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be adequate.
2) Protein intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be 0.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat intake should be as usual.
4) Sodium intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 0.5 gram.
5) Potassium is restricted.
6) Phosphors should be as usual.
7) The vitamins intake should be as usual.
8) Fluid intake should be balanced between input and output.

4. Chronic renal failure:
Chronic renal failure occurs because of progressive degenerative change in renal tissues. The metabolism of calcium and phosphors and the activation of Vitamin D are greatly disturbed in renal failure giving rise to:
1) Decrease phosphate in blood.
2) Decrease calcium in blood.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be adequate.
2) Protein intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be 0.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat intake should be restricted.
4) Sodium intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 1.5 gram.
5) Potassium intake should be as usual.
6) Phosphors should be low.
7) The diet should contain high amount of vitamin D.
8) Fluid intake should be balanced between input and output.

The diet modification aims to achieve a balance between intake and output, alleviate symptoms, maintain adequate nutrition and retard progression of renal failure.

Diet Modification in Liver Diseases

Modification of diet is the first line of treatment in many medical cases. When your doctor orders you to eat certain foods and stop eating other foods, just follow the orders; the doctor knows better. Here are the diet modifications that doctors order their patients to follow typically in one of the major health problems; liver diseases.

Diet modification in liver diseases:
1. Hepatitis:
The goal of the diet modification is to promote the liver tissue healing.
The diet therapy appropriate for hepatitis includes the following considerations:
A. High protein diet with recommended daily intake of 100 to 150 gram. This aims to permit liver cell regeneration.
B. High carbohydrate diet with recommended daily intake of 300 to 400 gram. This aims to replenish glycogen storage, meet caloric needs and spare protein for liver cell repair.
C. Moderate fat diet with recommended daily intake of 80 to 100 gram. This aims to make the diet more acceptable such as oil, butter and cream is prescribed.
D. High energy diet with recommended daily intake of 2500 to 3000 calories. This aims to meet the demand of tissue repair.
E. High vitamins diet with recommended daily intake of 2 to 3 timed of the normal daily intake. This aims to replace and to aid in liver cell regeneration.
F. Feeding is important. It is recommended that the patient of hepatitis should have three meals and three snakes. This aims to increase the patient’s tolerance.
G. High fluid intake with recommended daily intake of 3000 to 3500 ml. This aims to replace the fluid that the patient will lose due to sweating that result from the fever.

2. Diet therapy for liver cirrhosis:
A. Early liver cirrhosis: the patient should follow the same tips of hepatitis.
B. Late liver cirrhosis: the patient also will follow the same tips as hepatitis except in 4 main points:
1) Protein restriction: The recommended daily intake is from 0 to 50 gram. More than that will lead to hepatic coma. This results from the ammonia produced by the digestion process of proteins; this ammonia reaches the brain causing the hepatic coma.
2) Sodium restriction: the daily intake of sodium must be from 0.5 to 1 gram. This aims to solve two of the most common complications of the liver cirrhosis; edema and ascites.
3) Altering consistency of diet: in semisolid or liquid diet to avoid potential rupture and hemorrhage of esophageal varies.
4) Caloric intake should be from 1500 to 2000 calories per day.

3. Hepatic encephalopathy (coma):
Hepatic coma resulting from the inability of damaged liver cells to metabolize ammonia compounds. As we said that ammonia is produced in the intestine by bacterial action. This protein may be either ingested or derived from swallowed blood.
The diet therapy of hepatic coma is as the diet therapy of late liver cirrhosis and we add the following:
1) Vitamin K. This aims to reduce bleeding.
2) Broad spectrum antibiotics to eradicate the intestinal bacteria in order to prevent it from formation of ammonia.