Diet Modification in Renal Diseases

Patients with renal diseases lose the function of one of the most important organs in their bodies; the kidney. The kidney works as a filter for toxins; food contains toxins. That is why diet modification in renal diseases is extremely important; let’s find out how to make healthy meals for patients with kidney diseases.

1. Nephrotic syndrome:
This disorder covers a group of symptoms resulting from loss of glomerular barrier to protein sol large protein losses in urine that leads to:
1) Decrease albumin in blood.
2) Consequent edema.
3) Increase cholesterol in blood.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be high from 2500 to 3500 calories.
2) Protein intake should be high. The recommended intake is 1.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat is restricted.
4) Sodium intake should be moderate restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 3 gram.
5) Potassium is restricted.
6) Phosphors should be as usual.
7) The vitamins intake should be as usual.
8) Fluid intake should be high.

2. Glomerulonephritis:
Acute glomerulonephritis is characterized by inflammation of the capillary loop of the glomerulus. It is of sudden onset and manifested by:
1) Blood in urine.
2) Hypertension.
3) Mild loss of renal function.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be adequate.
2) Protein intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be 0.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat intake should be as usual.
4) Sodium intake should be as usual.
5) Potassium is restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 0.5 gram.
6) Phosphors should be as usual.
7) The vitamins intake should be as usual.
8) Fluid intake should be balanced between input and output.

3. Acute renal failure:
A sudden reduction in the ability of the kidney to excrete metabolic waste.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be adequate.
2) Protein intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be 0.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat intake should be as usual.
4) Sodium intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 0.5 gram.
5) Potassium is restricted.
6) Phosphors should be as usual.
7) The vitamins intake should be as usual.
8) Fluid intake should be balanced between input and output.

4. Chronic renal failure:
Chronic renal failure occurs because of progressive degenerative change in renal tissues. The metabolism of calcium and phosphors and the activation of Vitamin D are greatly disturbed in renal failure giving rise to:
1) Decrease phosphate in blood.
2) Decrease calcium in blood.
According to this, the diet modification should be like the following.
1) Caloric requirement should be adequate.
2) Protein intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be 0.5 gram per kilogram.
3) Fat intake should be restricted.
4) Sodium intake should be restricted. The daily intake should be from 0 to 1.5 gram.
5) Potassium intake should be as usual.
6) Phosphors should be low.
7) The diet should contain high amount of vitamin D.
8) Fluid intake should be balanced between input and output.

The diet modification aims to achieve a balance between intake and output, alleviate symptoms, maintain adequate nutrition and retard progression of renal failure.

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